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Data model of krangl

What is a DataFrame?

A "tabular" data structure representing cases/records (rows), each of which consists of a number of observations or measurements (columns) reference

And by mapping this defintion to Kotlin code, we obtain the core abstraction of krangl:

interface DataFrame {
    val cols: List<DataCol>

abstract class DataCol(val name: String) {
    abstract fun values(): Array<*>
* Implemented as column model to allow for vectorization where possible * Column implementations using nullable types String?, Int?, Double?, Boolean? and Any? * Internal length and type consistency checks (e.g. prevent duplicated column names)

To type or not to type?

  • Static types are cool, but most data has no type
  • It's more robust/fun to use types and they allow for better design
  • Many data attributes are very fluent

data class Employee(val id:Int, val name:String) 
val staffStats = listOf(Employee(1, "John"), Employee(2, "Anna"))  
    .predictNumSickDays()     // new type!
    .addPerformanceMetrics()  // new type!
    .addSalaries()            // new type!
    .correlationAnalysis()    // odd generic signature :-|
* R/python lack static typing, which make such workflows more fluent/fun to write

staff %>% 
    mutate(sick_days=predictSickDays(name)) %>%   # table with another column
    left_join(userPerf) %>%                       # and some more columns
    left_join(salaries) %>%                       # and even more columns
    select_if(is.numeric) %>%                     
    correlate(type="spearman")                    # correlate numeric attributes

Defining types is a tedious process.

krangl allows to mix typed and untyped data in a tablular data structure:

val dataFrame : DataFrame =

employee:Employee sales:List<Sale> age:Int address:String salary:Double
Employee(23, "Max") listOf(Sale(...), Sale()) 23 "Frankfurt" 50.3E3
... ... ... ... ...

It implements a pandas/tidyverse like API to create, manipulate, reshape, combine and summarize data frames

// aggregations like
dataFrame.summarize("mean_salary"){ mean(it["salaray"])}

// integration like
val df: DataFrame = dataFrame.leftJoin(otherDF)

// transformations like
dataFrame.addColumn("intial"){ it["employee"].map<Employee>{ }}

Get your data into krangl

It allows to read from tsv, csv, json, jdbc, e.g.

val users = dataFrameOf(
    "firstName", "lastName", "age", "hasSudo")(
    null , "meyer" , 23, null)

val tornados = DataFrame.readCSV(pathAsStringFileOrUrl)
  • Guess column types & default parameters
  • Built-in missing value support

Convert any iterable into a data-frame via extension function + reflection

data class Person(val name:String, val address:String)
val persons : List<Person> = ...

val personsDF: DataFrame = persons.asDataFrame() 

When doing so non-basic properties will be preserved as AnyCol. To further destructured these we can use unfold:

data class City(val name:String, val code:Int)
data class Person(val name:String, val address:City)

val persons : List<Person> = listOf(
    Person("Max", City("Dresden", 12309)),
    Person("Anna", City("Berlin", 10115))

val personsDF: DataFrame = persons.asDataFrame()
Both the column and the type are provided.